Monthly Archives: December 2016

December 19, 2016


“What you need to know”

The thyroid is a small butterfly shaped gland at the base of your neck. It is an endocrine gland which produces thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone controls the body’s metabolism which is the rate of many activities in your body, including how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats. Diseases of the thyroid cause it to make either too much or too little of the hormone. Depending on how much or how little hormone your thyroid makes, you may often feel restless or tired, or you may lose or gain weight. Women are more likely than men to have thyroid diseases, especially right after pregnancy and after menopause.

Thyroid problems include

  • Enlargement of the thyroid gland (Goiter)
  • Hyperthyroidism (excessive production of thyroid hormones)
  • Hypothyroidism (insufficient production of thyroid hormones)
  • Cancer of the thyroid
  • Thyroid nodules – lumps in the thyroid gland
  • Thyroiditis – swelling of the thyroid gland

Although the effects can be unpleasant or uncomfortable, most thyroid problems can be managed well if properly diagnosed and treated.

What is Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid disease, is a common disorder. With hypothyroidism, your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.

The thyroid gland is located in the front lower part of your neck. Hormones released by the gland travel through your bloodstream and affect nearly every part of your body, from your heart and brain, to your muscles and skin.

Who is at Risk for Hypothyroidism?

Women, particularly older women, are more likely to develop hypothyroidism than men. You are also more likely to develop hypothyroidism if you have a close family member with an autoimmune disease. Other risk factors include:

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

  • Fatigue, weakness
  • Slow heart rate (bradycardia)
  • Carpel tunnel syndrome
  • Weight gain or increased difficulty losing weight
  • Coarse, dry hair
  • Dry, rough pale skin
  • Hair loss
  • Cold intolerance
  • Muscle cramps, frequent muscle aches
  • Constipation
  • Depression, Irritability, Memory loss
  • Abnormal menstrual cycles, Decreased libido

The severity of the thyroid hormone deficiency and the length of time the body has been deprived of the proper amount of hormone will determine the symptomatology (range of symptoms).

Most people will have a combination of these symptoms. You may have one of these symptoms as your main complaint, while another will not have that problem at all and will be suffering from an entirely different symptom. A few patients with hypothyroidism are asymptomatic (have no symptoms at all) or the symptoms are so subtle that they go un-noticed.

It is important to discuss with your doctor if you have any of the aforementioned symptoms. Additionally, you may need to seek the skills of an endocrinologist.  If you have already been diagnosed and treated for hypothyroidism and continue to have any or all of these symptoms, you need to discuss it with your physician.

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism in Babies

Babies with hypothyroidism may have no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they can include:

  • Hypothermia: Cold hands and feet
  • Constipation
  • Listless and extreme sleepiness
  • Hoarse cry
  • Retarded growth or no growth
  • Floppy muscle tone
  • Jaundice which persists
  • Poor feeding habits
  • Puffy face
  • Distended stomach
  • Swollen tongue

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December 6, 2016


Reproductive health refers to the normal function and dysfunction of the male and female reproductive systems throughout the life course. Disorders of reproduction include infertility and reduced fertility. Other disorders include birth defects, developmental disorders, low birth weight, preterm birth, impotence, and menstrual disorders. There is a body of research that has made a strong link between exposure to environmental pollutants and the threat to reproductive health. One such pollutant is heavy metals and lead is associated with reduced fertility in both men and women. Another is mercury which when an individual is exposed to this heavy metal it could lead to birth defects and neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors, chemicals that appear to disrupt hormonal activity in humans and animals, may contribute to problems with fertility, pregnancy, and other aspects of reproduction.


Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring and it is controlled by hormones. Having intercourse as close as possible to ovulation definitely helps.

What is Infertility?

Infertility is a fairly common reproductive health disorder in approximately 15% of couples. What infertility means is the inability of a couple to become pregnant after a year of trying. Infertility can be traced to the woman in a third of the cases. Another third of cases is attributed to infertility in the male. The remainder of cases is because both partners have infertility issues or no cause can be found. If a woman can get pregnant but keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that’s also called infertility.

Fertility treatments are specific for men or for women. Some involve both partners. Surgery, drugs and assisted reproductive technology are common treatment options to resolve infertility. The success rate of fertility treatment is very encouraging as many couples go on to have babies.

What are the common causes of infertility?

All of the steps during ovulation and fertilization need to happen correctly in order for the woman to get pregnant. Sometimes the issues that cause infertility in couples are present at birth or they develop later in life.

Causes of male infertility

These may include:

  • Abnormal production of sperm due to
    • undescended testicles,
    • genetic defects,
    • health problems such as diabetes or
    • infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, mumps or HIV.
    • Enlarged veins in the testes (varicocele) can also affect the quality of sperm.
  • Issues with the delivery of sperm are due to sexual problems such as:
  • premature ejaculation
  • cystic fibrosis and other genetic disorders
  • structural problems, such as a blockage in the testicle; or damage or injury to the reproductive organs.
  • Environmental factors include:
  • overexposure to chemical including pesticides
  • Medical therapy related to cancer and its treatment, including radiation or chemotherapy can damage the reproductive organs and impair sperm production.

Other factors which cause infertility

It has been established that nicotine, alcohol, marijuana and some prescription drugs such as antibiotics, anti-hypertensives, steroids (anabolic) or others, can also affect fertility in some individuals. Prolonged heat exposure in some occupations as well as recreational exposure to heat in saunas or hot tubs may affect sperm production.

Causes of female infertility may include:

  • Ovulation disorders

Ovulation is the monthly release of a mature egg from one of the two ovaries. This process can be disrupted by hormonal disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Excessive exercise and eating disorders can also interfere with ovulation. Both conditions are seen in female athlete triad syndrome. Physical trauma or tumors of the ovaries will impact ovulation.

  • Anatomical abnormalities of the uterine or cervical

Abnormalities of the cervix, uterus include congenital abnormalities, tumors (including fibroids) and cancers. These can interfere with implantation of the fertilized egg.

  • Damaged or blocked fallopian tubes

Sexually transmitted infections can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease which could lead to blocked fallopian tubes.

  • Endometriosis

Endometrial tissue which grows outside of the uterus is called endometriosis. It may be found on the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes. Endometrial tissue outside of the uterus responds to the menstrual hormonal changes and often bleed during menstruation.

  • Early menopause

Early menopause occurs before age 40. Medical conditions which can induce this are immune system diseases, certain genetic conditions such as Turner syndrome. Smoking, radiation or chemotherapy treatment can induce early menopause.

  • Pelvic adhesions: bands of scar tissue that bind organs after pelvic infection, appendicitis, or abdominal or pelvic surgery.


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